Four Cs of Reflection

Continuous reflection activities are encouraged throughout the semester in a variety of formats. Whether you are following Gibbs’ Model on page 20 or Rolfes’ What? So What? Now What? Model, ongoing reflection is key for students to have multiple opportunities to process challenges and implement new solutions.


Connected reflection activities should refer directly to each student’s service-learning project. Because students will likely be working on different service-learning projects, faculty members should be prepared for variety in the content of reflection activities.

Challenging reflection activities should challenge students to think critically about their service-learning activities and how they relate to their roles as engaged citizens and to academic course content. Faculty members should set high expectations and provide engaging feedback for students.

Contextualized reflection activities should be consistent and complementary to other course content.

Source: Eyler, J., Giles, D.E. & Schmiede, A. (1996) A practitioner’s guide to reflection in service-learning. Nashville: Vanderbilt University.